Volume 02 - Issue 02

April 2014

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Analogy-Enhanced Instruction: Effects on Reasoning Skills in Science

Krisette B. Remigio Rosanelia T. Yangco Allen A. Espinosa
Pages: 1-9

The study examined the reasoning skills of first year high school students after learning general science concepts through analogies. Two intact heterogeneous sections were randomly assigned to Analogy-Enhanced Instruction (AEI) group and Non Analogy-Enhanced (NAEI) group. Various analogies were incorporated in the lessons of the AEI group for eight weeks. The Scientific Reasoning Test (SRT) was administered to assess the students' reasoning skills before and after the intervention. The group exposed to AEI was expected to have a higher mean score in the SRT. However, no significant difference was found on the posttest mean score of the AEI and NAEI groups. Also, no significant difference was found on the two groups' posttest mean scores in each of the five reasoning skills (conservation of mass and volume, proportional reasoning, identification and control of variables, probabilistic reasoning and correlational reasoning). The study has implication for researchers who are interested to replicate it.

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Corrective Feedback and Second Language Acquisition: Differential Contributions of Implicit and Explicit Knowledge

Mandana Rohollahzadeh Ebadi Mohd Rashid Mohd Saad Nabil Abedalaziz
Pages: 10-19

The issue of error correction remains controversial in recent years due to the different positions of interface toward implicit and explicit knowledge of ESL learners. This study looks at the impacts of implicit corrective feedback in the form of recast on implicit and explicit knowledge of adult ESL learners. In an experimental study, lower-intermediate learners first were taught the grammatical features; then they completed communicative tasks during which the experimental group received recast and the control group received no feedback when an error occurred. Acquisition was measured by means of tests designed to measure implicit and explicit knowledge. Results of ANCOVA analysis revealed higher score for the experimental group; and result of t-test revealed that recast has significant effect on implicit knowledge. In line with the weak interface position toward implicit and explicit knowledge, the findings extend empirical support for Schmidt’s noticing hypothesis and function of recast in language learning.

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How do Primary School Students Acquire the Skill of Making Hypothesis

Faridah Binti Darus Rohaida Mohd Saat
Pages: 20-26

Science education in Malaysia emphasizes three components: namely knowledge, scientific skills which include science process skills, and manipulative skills, and scientific attitudes and noble values. The science process skills are important in enhancing students' cognitive development and also to facilitate students' active participation during the teaching and learning process. This study is aimed at identifying the acquisition of the skill of formulating hypothesis among primary school students. It was conducted based on the theory of neo-Piagetian Cognitive Development and was investigated using generic qualitative research method. Three data collection techniques were used comprising observation, interviews and document analysis. Two tasks were developed and given to students as a stimulus during interviews: which are Acquisition -Skill Stimulus (RPK) and Compilations of Experiment related Questions (HiSET). Six primary school students were selected as participants based on purposive sampling. Based on the data analysis, four major categories emerged, namely: (a) the concept of hypothesis, (b) identification of the effect of variable, (c) the relationship between variables, and (d) testing of hypothesis. Initial findings illustrated that the mastery level of hypothesis formulation in three participants was very low, while the mastery level in the others was noticeably low

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Research and Trends in the Studies of Phonological Knowledge and Reading Development: A Review on Selected Journals

Khairul Azhar Jamaludin Norlidah Alias Roselina Johari
Pages: 27-36

Developing phonological knowledge of students is believed to be beneficial to reading development. This paper reviews selected eight articles on the issue of phonological knowledge and reading development in both native and English as Second Language (ESL) context. In finding the trends and patterns across all eight articles, the content and context of each study was critically analyzed. The discussion is divided into five sub sections; research settings, data collection methods, samples selection, focus or issue of the current studies, as well as the similarities and differences of the findings. It is found that phonological knowledge (as developed in phonics instruction) is undeniably effective to develop reading skills, even for readers with limited exposure to English. Students who were exposed to phonics instruction were able to read fluently compared to their counterparts. Some of these studies even highlighted that these students acquired reading skills faster compared to the control groups. The findings of the selected studies have also established contributing factors on reading success. Of interest, gender, age and type of phonics instruction are among influential factors to reading development. Despite the impressive findings, this paper also discusses the other components and structure of the selected studies, such as the research design, settings, sample selection as well as focus or issue highlighted in each selected study. It is hoped that this paper will enlighten readers on the trends and patterns of the current literature in the area of phonological knowledge and reading development across language settings

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The Tentativeness of Scientific Theories: Conceptions of Pre-Service Science Teachers

Jasmine Jain Nabilah Abdullah Beh Kian Lim
Pages: 37-44

The recognition of sound understanding of Nature of Science (NOS) in promoting scientific literacy among individuals has heightened the need to probe NOS conceptions among various groups. However, the nature of quantitative studies in gauging NOS understanding has left the understanding on few NOS aspects insufficiently informed. This paper aimed to probe the understanding on one of these underexplored aspects, namely the tentativeness of scientific theory. Phenomenographic data collect was used to infer the understanding of ten pre-service science teachers on the tentativeness of scientific theories. Results showed that the participants held two differing conceptions about the scientific theories in this regard, namely 1) Theories are changeable with future occurrences and 2) Theories are changeable opinions. Implications suggest that other than educating the future teachers about NOS, the pedagogical NOS knowledge should be equally emphasized so that they are able to include NOS in their instructions explicitly.

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Wait-Time and Multiple Representation Levels in Chemistry Lessons

Winnie Sim Siew Li Mohammad Yusof Arshad
Pages: 45-53

Wait-time is an important aspect in a teaching and learning process, especially after the teacher has posed questions to students, as it is one of the factors in determining quality of students' responses. This article describes the practices of wait-time one after teacher's questions at multiple representation levels among twenty three chemistry teachers at secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and the sequences after the wait-time one practices. The study was conducted over eight months using observation as the main method of data collection. Observations were made twice for each respondent by using the Observation Instrument in Inquiry Teaching through Verbal Interaction (OIITVI). Forty six observations were audio and video recorded. Findings showed that only 6.80% of total questions at multiple representation levels were followed by wait-time one. This result showed that teachers lacked practise of wait-time. Three top sequences after wait-time one were teacher giving instruction, student's answer at macroscopic level and teacher's questions at macroscopic level. In conclusion, chemistry teachers should practise wait-time one to improve the quality of teaching and learning of chemistry.

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The Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Sciences (MOJES) strives to provide a national and international academic forum to meet the professional interests of individuals in various educational disciplines. It is a professional refereed journal in the interdisciplinary fields sponsored by the Faculty of Education, University of Malaya. This journal serves as a platform for presenting and discussing a wide range of topics in Educational Sciences. It is committed to providing access to quality researches ranging from original research, theoretical articles and concept papers in educational sciences. In order to produce a high quality journal, extensive effort has been put into selecting valuable researches that contributed to the journal. I would like to take this opportunity to express my appreciation to the editorial board, reviewers and researchers for their valuable contributions to make this journal a reality.